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BASALT®-N2 INDENT micro-forces instrument for measuring the viscoelastic behavior of hydrogels and other biomaterials

Messung der Firma IOT mit dem smartWLI-basic

New double-axis BASALT®-N2 tribometer, measuring friction and wear as well as electrical resistance for two parallel experiments

TETRA 2PP system for industrial 3D printing


BASALT®-N2 INDENT micro-forces instrument for

measuring the viscoelastic behavior of hydrogels and other biomaterials


WinWinTec's supplier Tetra developed a micro-forces indentation tester for the specific purpose of describing the complex mechanical behavior of biomaterials used in life science, mainly. As a matter of fact, these materials show frequency-dependent viscoelastic behavior, and when characterizing its properties, the physiological frequency range of possible stresses (0.1 to 3 Hz) has to be taken into consideration.

Tetra's customer Institute for Bioprocessing and Analytical Measurement Techniques (iba) recently published a study on the results of their experiment consisting of a dynamic force measurement (indentation and relaxation) and its evaluation. In this type of indentation measurement, the test piece is compressed vertically by a force up to a maximum of 0.5 N or by 20% of the height of the piece. The force was measured at a constant Z position for 300 seconds, during which time the relaxation behavior of the piece was investigated. The sampling rate was 100 per second. The raw data of the modulus/time curves were fitted with the aid of evolutionary algorithms, and the relaxation time spectrum was derived from the data gained this way.

BASALT®-N2 INDENT made by TETRA, with a 1N force sensor, was used as the measuring system. A circular plate with a diameter of 6 mm was attached to it in order to apply a force to the entire surface of the cylindrical test piece, which had dimensions of d = 5.5 mm, l = 6 mm.


Experimental set-up: BASALT®-N2 INDENT and test pieces


The investigations confirmed the initially formulated thesis that the incorporation of mono-functional precursors (lactide and caprolactone mixtures / LCMs) could specifically adjust the viscoelastic behavior over several orders of magnitude. Increasing the proportion of mono-functional LCMs increased the viscous proportion up until structural integrity was lost (100% mono-functional = no cross-linking agent). The recording of the measured values and the adjustable force range of the BASALT®-N2 INDENT are ideally suited for the systematic investigation of the viscoelastic behaviour of biomaterials and hydrogels.

Scaffold with the polymer platform which was investigated, structured by two-photon polymerization




Messung der Firma IOT mit dem smartWLI-basic

Es handelt sich um einen UV Lack der mittels Excimer matt strukturiert wurde. Der Krater wurde durch eine Luftblase beim Lackauftrag verursacht die in der Mitte ein kleines Loch hinterlassen hat (Bild 1 + Bild 2).

Der Sauerstoff aus der Blase inhibiert die Polymerisation und dadurch die Ausbildung der Faltenstruktur. Im fertigen Produkt ist dieser Fehler als Glanzpunkt zu erkennen.

Bei dem zweiten Beispiel handelt es sich um eine durch Excimer erzeugte Oberfläche ohne Fehler. Das Produkt ist eine tiefmatte, kratzfeste Lackschicht mit soft-touch-Effekt (Bild 3 + Bild 4).

Bild 1

Bild 2

Bild 3

Bild 4


New double-axis BASALT®-N2 tribometer, measuring friction and wear as well as

electrical resistance for two parallel experiments

WinWinTec's German supplier of micro tribology instruments Tetra recently developed a dedicated double-axis friction and wear testing system for the US American consumer electronics company Apple. Based on TETRA's market proven BASALT®-N2 measurement platform, characterized by outstanding accuracy and reproducibility, this customized tool was configured and optimized for realizing two friction and wear experiments in parallel, including on-line electrical conductivity measurements.

The motion being the same for both experiments - in stroke length and speed -, one station can apply another load than the other, and the number of experiment cycles can be varied between the two. The sample holder is specially designed for easy exchange of flat samples and measurement of the electrical resistance, during a test.

The double-axis system is clearly differentiating us from other tribology suppliers' instruments in the market which can run only one single experiment at a time.


Double-axis BASALT®-N2 tribometer,
measurement chamber opened

Instrumentation modules of both stations

Wear and friction experiment
under lubricated conditions



TETRA 2PP system for industrial 3D printing

Our supplier TETRA developed system enabling 3D printing with nanometer precision for biomedical science, microsystem technology, sensor optics and photonics.


World record in nano 3D printing technology

For the first time, the nano printer developed by TETRA prints three-dimensional objects on nano scale with dimensions of centimeters by two-photon-polymerization (2PP). TETRA´s new approach in machine designing breaks the previously existing limit of a few millimeters height of 2PP structures. Thus dimensions up to three times three centimeter are possible. This is current world record!

Two Photon Polymerization is a lithographic process in which photo-sensitive, liquid materials are cross-linked by an ultra-short pulse laser with the material hardening in focal area of the laser beam. While the focus is of a few microns in diameter, the diameter of the polymerized structure can be lower than 100 nm. This enables very high resolutions of written structures, with a stable writing velocity of 300mm/sec and structure sizes up to 30x30x30mm³.


Application fields:


Biomedical science and fabrication

 - Implants

 - Tissue engineering

 - Cell biology

 - Active ingredient research


Microsystem technology

 - Micro-optics

 - Micro-fluidics




 - In-situ measurement technology

 - Sintering membrane for in-vivo sensors



 - Wave guides

 - Photonic crystals

 - Optical connectors



2PP system, footprint 1 x 1sqm
(plus 0.6 x 0.8sqm for electrical cabinet)


Stack of scaffold layers


Scaffold cube 10x10x10mm³


TETRA in-house developed GUI




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